Amezruy : ayen ur gan lejdud i tmaziɣt

Capture d_écran 2017-10-27 à 12.18.57

Abrid i d-wwin Imaziɣen deg umezruy d yiwen seg wid yeččuren d tasḍiwin, maca tikwal yessewham s kra n lexṣas i nezmer ad d-nessukkes, ladɣa deg wayen yerzan tutlayt d tsertit.

Di tilawt, ulac Amaziɣ yefkan azal s tidet i tutlayt-is uqbel lqern wis 20, ula deg talliyin mi ḥekmen nutni s yiman-nsen. M’ara nẓer kan belli tamaziɣt (s tantaliwin-is yemgaraden) ur tuɣal d tunṣibt di kra n tmennaṭ deg wakal-is segmi d-tella armi d aseggas n 2011 deg Lmerruk syin teḍfer-d Lezzayer, yewwi-d ad nefk tuttra tabɣast i iman-nnneɣ u ad d-nqirr anda « ḍelmen » lejdud-nneɣ.

Tallit n teglest

Yuɣ lḥal, am akken i ten-mazal ar tura, Imaziɣen si zik ttwassnen s tsefkt i sεan ɣer tutlayin seg wasmi ttwassnen deg umezruy (ladɣa gar Iṛuamniyen d Igrigiyen), meḥsub isehel-asen ulemmud n tutlayin n lǧiran-nsen. Meslayen tafiniqit n Qerṭaj iwumi qqaren tafuniqt, talaṭinit, tagrigit, taεrabt, tafransist, d tiyaḍ di kra n talliyin am tsepenyult. D acu, aya d ayen i ten-yeǧǧan, ma nenna-d akka,  ad rren ayla-nsen ɣer ṭṭerf. Yuɣ lḥal gar yegduden imezwura iεucren Imzaiɣen, d Iqerṭajiyen i ten-id-iqerben ugar di tmennaṭ n tmanaɣt Tunes n tura. Ihi s Masensen s Sifaqs llan d imdukal-nsen, deg yiwet akken n tallit. Cerken yid-sen kullec, mεucaren deg twaculin, uqmen assaɣen ara d-nini assa d isertanen ; dɣa yiwen am Masensen i yesseḥbabren ɣef tgelda-s amek ara twenneε, yeddem aṭas seg termit Iqerṭajiyen i d-wwin nutni sɣur lejdud-nsen Ifiniqen, ladɣa ayen yerzan tafellaḥt d tnezzut, maca yesseqdec ula d tutlayt-nsen tafuniqt i yuɣalen d tin i d tunṣibt ama deg uɣrem-is neɣ di tmanaɣt-is Cirta s umata, tugart ma llan ibeṛṛaniyen, ulamma tezga tmaInscription_bilingue_de_Thugga2ziɣt deg ugdud.

D tidet, uran s tfinaɣ imiren, maca mačči d iḍrisen, d ismawen kan akka d wwalen ifriḍen i ttarran yess tikwal ɣef yeɣraben ifakanen, ixxamen unṣiben, iɣran ttawin yemnayen, d wayen nniḍen ; yerna dima tettili ɣer tama-s tfuniqt neɣ talaṭinit syin ɣer da. Lejdud-nneɣ deg leqrun-nni lemden tutlayin i d-nenna, uran yes-sent idlisen am Ḥiemfsal wis sin i yuran s tfuniqt, agellid Yuba wis sin i yuran s tlaṭinit, d wiyaḍ i d-iḍefren syin d asawen am Ufulay (lqern II ), d ugerram Ugustius (lqern wis IV), maca widak banen, imi llan seddaw tecḍaṭ n Ruma.

Akken i kemmlen deg tallit Iwandalen d tin Ibizanṭiyen, ma d tawaɣit tasnilsant tameqqrant teḍran-d mi d-wwḍen Waεraben. D acu aɣbel mačči deg ukeččum n imhersanen i yella kan, acku dayi ilaq ad d-nesmekti yiwet n tidet tamazrayt i ntettu nekni s Imaziɣen, yerna llan wid ur tt-nessin.

Tallit tanammst d ukeččum n Waεraben

Ihi mi d-wwḍen Waεraben akal n Tmazɣa seg unṭag amezwaru n useggas 647, yuqeε-itt imenɣi, qqlen ṭṭfen tamurt. Maca yewweḍ-d lweqt anda εawden Imaziɣen refden-d iman-nsen, ladɣa deg tama umalu, εewwlen ad kksen azaglu n ddula Tamawit (Omeyyades) d uqerru-s deg Dimecq, yerna ssawḍen rnan Aεraben imawiyen, tugart segmi tt-gezmen di rray ad sen-lḥun s tin n ddin i ḍefren segmi sen-teffeɣ afus, meḥsub win n tneslemet, maca deg terkent Ixerriǧiyen i d-yerran azalen n teɣdemt yettwaεfsen si tazwara ; yuɣ lḥal asɣan n tneslemt  ur d-yeqqar ara belli d Aεrab kan i ilaqen ad yeḥkem, ihi s wakka i sellmen Yimawiyen imi si tama-iḍen ur d-grin ara ǧehden am zik.1

Dɣa din i tella tuzzma deg Imaziɣen, acku deg wayen ara nadin ad reṣṣin ayla-nsen s tidet, tamagit-nsen i yebnan ɣef tutlayt uqbel ayen nniḍen, kemmlen ɣlin deg texfet n ddin i tikelt-iḍen. Nenna-d si tagara n lqern wis VIII, amur ameqqran n Tmazɣa yegra-d ɣer yimawlan-is, ternuḍ ula d Landalus i ṭṭfen i ṭṭfen yemslemn di Spanya, ala deg Tunes de Libya i qqimen cudden ɣer Usammar aεrab imi aṭas i istqerren  din n Waεraben i d-yekkan si teqbilt n Σuqba ben Nafeε. Ihi ɣas akken, wid i d-yerran timunent-nsen, mi kkren sbedden iwunak imezwura, d ibeṛṛaniyen i rran d Iqerra ! Akka, wid yellan deg tama n Merruk n tura d Idris amezwaru i d-irewlen si n tmurt taεrabt i sbedden m’akken i sen-yenna yeqqers-d si twacult n nnbi Muḥemmed, Ibaḍiyen n Tihert ssulin Ibn Rustom afarsi, imi t-tuɣ deg ubrid-nsen amasɣan i yella. Dɣa kullec ikemmel ileḥḥu s tutlayt n Leqran ; am widak n teglest, Imaziɣen n tallit tanammast werǧin i meyyzen ad arun s tutayt-nsen, d tutlayt-iḍen tabeṛṛanit i d-yernan teṭṭef-d agnes. Ulamek ara nini d lbaṭel i yeḍran fell-aɣ, imi lawan-nni d Imaziɣen i iḥekmen ; ula d ddulat i d-iḍefren : Ifaṭmiyen, Iziriyen, Iḥemmadiyen (di Bgayet !), Imweḥḥden, Imurabḍen, Izeyyanen, Iḥefṣiyen ; neɣ di tama n Merruk daɣ : Iminiren d i Iseεdyen d Iwaṭṭasen, uqbel ad tt-ṭṭfen Yeεlawiyen si 1631 ar tura… kemmlen ttarun arraten-nsen d tebratin s taεrabt.Yerna mačči d ayen kan ; ula m’ara yili d Amaziɣ i d sselṭan neɣ i d ageldun, yettεerrib isem-is am akken uɣen tannumi wid yessezwirin tineslemt deg ukersi-nsen ; amedya seg wid yettwassnen, d aḥemmadi Nnasir ibn Al-anas ibn Ḥammad (1062-1088) i yerran Bgayet d tamanaɣt-is, imi di tilawt isem-is Anzir. Maca ur ilaq ara nenker, ulamma drus, llan kra i yeǧǧan isem-nsen am Yeɣmurasen di Tlemsan (1206 – 1283), ɣas akken yerna-yas « Ibn Zeyyan » nni. Nnan-d belli Utumert n waṭlas amerruki (- 1130), imsebded n ddula n Imweḥḥden, i isemman i iman-s Ibn tumert, yura sin yedlisen-is “Lεaqida”, d “Lmurcid” s tmaziɣt, uqbel ad ten-yessuqel ɣer taεrabt.

Limaṛa i d-yeǧǧa ddin deg Tmazɣa d taẓegzagt; imi ɣas akken tantaliyin timaziɣin ssawḍent ddrent deg ugdud akken ilaq, deg timawit kan i qqiment. Nnig wakken, imeyyazen n lweqt-nni mačči kan uran s taεrabt, wten ula fell-as akken ad tt-ssjehden, am Ibn Jerrum i d-yeǧǧan tajerrumt taεrabt i yesεan azal ar assa ɣur ikadimyen aεraben, si lqern wis XIV.

Seg Iṭerkiyen ɣer Ifransisen

Ma segmi d-kecmen Iṭerkiyen, kra din yensa deg tmazɣa talemmast, imi Lmerruk n tura ur tt-wwiḍen ara. Deg idurar ur tesεiḍ w’i yessnen ad yaru ala kra n lecyax iteṭṭfen ɣer yiman-nsen, ladɣa imṛabḍen i d-ikecmen tuɣ tamurt taqbaylit, imi di lawan-nni win yessnen acemma taεrabt yerna yeḥfeḍ kra n tsurtin, d win kan i d amusnaw, nnig-s ulac. Yuɣ lḥal widak ur ttjerriden ula d asefru ma yella-d, ɣas d adekker i yettdekkir bab-is. Akka i zedrent tmeslayin timaziɣin seddaw uzaglu n taεrabt i d-ssusen wat tmurt s yiman-nsen. Armi d-tekcem Fransa i bdan mehhzen lumuṛ ulamma deg snat tamiwin tinemgalin. Imi si tama tamharsa tafransist tεewwel-d ad tεerreb akk Tafriqt Ugafa, aya d ayen ibanen, s yismawen i tbeddel d tnariyin taεrabin i tesbedd di yal amkan, dɣa ula d inmezrayen-nsen imeqqranen am Stéphane Gsel cehhden-d ɣef akka. D acu si tama nniḍen, si tallit-is i d-tebda tira n tmaziɣt. Γas deg tazwara d ayen ikecmen kan iswi-nsen astaritiji, imi akken ad ẓẓlen aḍar akken ilaq yewwi-d fell-asen ad ssnen tutlayin akk n tmurt, ama di Lezzayer neɣ di Lmerruk. Maca tuɣḍadin n unadi deg tutlayt-nneɣ d usekcem-is deg tira, d tid i s-yerẓan asalu i tikelt tamezwarut sɣur ifransisen, gar ibabaten imellalen, iserdasiyen, d wiyaḍ.

Dɣa Adolphe Hanoteau (1814- 1897), ajiniral i yuran s teqbaylit gar imezwura maḍi  tagara n lqern wis XIX, yetewhhem asmi inuda deg tmurt n Leqbayel ad s-d-mlen ma yella kra n wedlis yuran si zik deg tmennaṭ-a, ur yufi ula d tajridt ufus ! Yerna ula mi yesteqsay imdanen, ur yefhim ara amek armi ur d-yegri wayen ara s-d-ḥkun ɣef kra n taluft ibeεden deg wkud ; meḥsub taktawt-nneɣ tanbazt ɣas in’as teqqim d tilemt. « Werǧin ẓriɣ aɣref ur d-necliε deg umezruy-is am Leqbayel. » i yenna deg tezwart n wedlis-is anda i d-iḥawec isefra d ccnawi. Dɣa ma yenna akka, mačči d astehzi, d lewhayem kan i yewhem. Imi di tilawt, Leqbayel neɣ Imaziɣen nniḍen, mačči d tasmuḍi i semmeḍ wul-nsen ɣef wayla-nsen maca d tira i ten-ixuṣṣen. Tidet kan, ɣef igiman n lesnin, cehhden-d fell-aɣ ibeṛṛaniyen amek i nfaz deg waṭas n taɣulin, am tid n nnif, tabɣest deg umennuɣ d wazal nettak i wakal ajaddi, atg. Maca deg wayen yerzan idles, tafawet meqqret, yerna ssebba mačči dima sɣur imhersanen i d-tekka.

Imaziɣen ass-a

Ccwi kan seg Iṛumiyen-nni imezwura, deg tmennaṭ taqbaylit uɣalen kkren-d Leqbayel s yiman-nsen mi ifat ufan ttawil n tmusni, si Bulifa ɣer Mεemmri armi d wid n tura. Assa taqbaylit teɣrem-d acḥal seg wayen i tesεa d lexṣas. Segmi s-bedden imeɣnasen imezwura i iḥebbren ladɣa i tmawalt tatrart i sbuɣren acemma, tuɣal treffed iman-is kra kra. Yerna mačči d lmuḥal ad nqaḍeε wiyaḍ deg yal taɣult. Amedya meqqren deg tutlayin yellan am ayla-nneɣ deg tgellelt, i ilaq ad nmuqel, d win n tεebrit n Isryil. Imawlan-is skeflen-tt-d si tillas n wakud, anda tella ur tettwaseqdec ala deg ddin d wayen icudden ɣur-s, tura uɣalen sɣarayen yess ula d tusniwin εlayen. Awi-d kan lebɣi ad yezdeɣ ulawen u ad ggten imeɣnasen icuban wid yellan yakan, ara d-iεiwnen yal wa deg uḥric-is, dɣa ayen i ɣ-iruḥen ɣef tizi n leqrun nezmer ad t-id-nerr di kra n tnemrawin iseggasen kan.

Yerna tura yettuḥettem fell-aɣ ma nebɣa ad tidir tutlayt-nneɣ ula deg umeslay kan. Amedya deg tutlayt taqbaylit, ma zik lejdud ur uran ara, iles-nsen yezga d amaziɣ, tugart deg idurar, seg wakken ur yelli wayeḍ ara s-yekksen amkan… tura d tuggza-iḍen i ɣ-yeggunin. Si tmunent ɣer da, taεrabt tekcem iɣerbazen deg tudrin, wid yettmeslayen ala s tmaziɣt, am tyemmatin i tt-iḥerzen zik si tsuta ɣer tayeḍ, uɣalen heddren daɣ s tefransist d taεrabt ; yeshel ihi maḍi ad ruḥen wawalen ma ulac ajerred-nsen deg idlisen. Acku ɣas yebda uselmed n tmaziɣt yettaɣ tagnit, ma ur tewwiḍ ara d tutlayt tamezwarut n tɣuri anda i tella d tutlayt tayemmat, yewεer akken ad teḥrez tallunt i s-tekksent tiyaḍ si yal tama. Wa d addad n teqbaylit kan, maca d ayen yerzan tutlayin nniḍen akk  timaziɣin, am tcelḥit (Merruk) d tcawit i yettwaḥersen deg temdinin armi uɣalen kra imeḍqan tenger maḍi tmaziɣt deg-sen.

Samir Tiɣzert

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