Tudsiwin tiqvayliyen tiqdimin: Tajmaɛt

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D ixf amezwaru seg yiwen usebtar ɣef tuddsiwin n Tmurt taqbaylit tilellit gar 1519 ɣer 1871, wa d aḍris imgerrez i d-yettmeslayen ɣef tmuɣli n yiwen ufransis yessnen nezzeh anagraw asertan i yesselḥawen tamurt taqbaylit deg lqern wis-19.

Nebda tikli, seddaw n weɣrab iɣef ibedd Fort-National (Lareɛa Nait Iraten). Tameslayt teɛna ansayen d leɛwayed n tmurt, dɣa Mass Sabatier, […] yebɣa ad d-yehḍer ɣef tuddsiwin tisertanin d tmettiyin n tmurt taqbaylit, iɣef yeɣra s telqey.

Ulac ula yiwet n tmurt nniḍen deg ddunit ideg sbedden tafidiralt akken tesbedd tmurt taqbaylit. Ma nebɣa ad nessiweḍ ɣer wamek i yebda deg tazwara unagraw-a, yessefk ad d-nṣubb qbel ɣer wemdan. Aqbayli, d amdan ilelli n tidet, ur yelli, am deg tmura-nneɣ yeddukklen, d aferdis kan aḥerfi deg uɣref anezmar; netta s timmad-is i d imḍebber ɣef yiman-is.

Yeddukel d terbaɛt n yemdanen, ɣer-sen azref am netta, akken ad ssallin taxerrubt, taseddart tamenzut deg tkeddanin n tfidiralt. Zik, taxerrubt tella d yiwet n twacult n tidet, iɛeggalen-is ddukklen s yiẓuran idammen […]. Nezmer ad d-nini belli taxerrubt taqbaylit teɛdel d la gens taṛumanit, dacu kan deg txerrubt iɛeggalen-is yakk kifkif-iten yerna ur d-nettaf deg-s la imɛellmen la imsaɣen.

Yal taxerrubt d nettat i yettrayin ɣef lmelk-is, yezga yecrek ur t-friqen. Taxerrubt tferren-d imḍebber-is, d ṭṭamen, d netta ara yesḥbibren ɣef lḥeqq n wedrum-is, ad yennaɣ fell-as ma yella win i d-yemmɣen fell-as, ma yeṭṭerḍeq ṭṭrad d netta ara yilin ɣef uqerruy n yiɛeskriwen. Aṭas n txerrubin yedduklen ttakent-d taddart, d ddula s timmad-is, meɛna d ddula tafidiralt. Tiddukla n tudrin i d-yezzin slalayent-d lɛerc, deg taggara, asemlili n waṭas n leɛruc, ilmend n uqabel n weɛdaw aberrani, yettak-d taqbillt. Daɣnetta, drusit maḍi imeḍqan ideg ara naf yal taxelxalt deg snesla-yi tasertant, i d-yebdan seg wemdan alma tessuli taqbilt, tewtel d weḥwil arakal; dɣa deg tidet, taxerrubt d azniq deg taddart, lakumin d taddart s timmad-is, lɛerc yessezdi tudrin n tiɣilt n yiwen n wedrar, ma d taqbilt tezga meḥsub tettili-d kan i kra n taluft n lqaɛa, am tɛessast n kra n webrid neɣ n kra n tizi ɣef yimnekcamen iberraniyen. Dɣa akka i tella deg tmurt-a yessewhamen, tuddsa tasertant twulem nezzeh amek ifeṣṣel wakal, almi nuɣal nesteqstay ma d tamurt i d-yettwaxdmen i wemdan neɣ d amdan i yettaxedmen i tmurt.

Yessefk ad nẓer amek leḥḥunt temsal n taddart deg tuddsa-yi ixenzen cwiṭ, meɛna d tin irekden akken iwata. Deg tudert tasertant taqbaylit, ṣṣef ila azal meqqren am wazal i yesɛan ipartiyen deg Lurup. Dacu kan yella lxilaf meqqren gar ṣṣef aqbayli d wayen iwumi nsemma nekni aparti: deg uparti id-ijemmɛen imdanen d tikta-s tisertanin neɣ tidiyanyin iɣef ttnaɣen ad tent-ssizwiren, deg ṣṣef ulac yak aya; netta yesɛa yiwen kan n yeswi, d asḥirbeb ɣef lfayda kan n iɛeggalen-is. Ṣṣef itedder ɣef yiwet lḥaǧa kan: Yettḥadda amdan ɣef tmḥeqranit n terbaɛt, imi irennu-as-d lɣaci nniḍen akken ad s-d-rren lḥeqq-is i s-yettwakksen. Dɣa amdan ikeččem ɣer ṣṣef segmi ara d-ilal, ur d-iteffeɣ deg-s mebla ma yexdem kra n twaɣit meqqren. I wakken ad yesnerni deg lɣaci-ines, d ayen i s-irennun deg wafud d sɛaya, ṣṣef yettɛedday akin i tlisa n taddart; yettaṭṭaf-d seg taddart ar taddart, yettaweḍ almi d yiri n teqbilt, i waken ad iɛass s kra yellan d ttawil, ɣas s sslaḥ deg ufus, ɣef kra n yiwen seg yiɛeggalen-is yettwaɛefsen; dɣa acḥal tikwal i yeḍran imenɣiyen imeqranen i yessuzlen aṭas seg yidammen n Yeqbayliyen zik-nni. Dɣa ula d da daɣen nezmer ad d-nemmeslay ɣef umwati yemwata wemdan d wamek ifeṣṣel wakal; yal taddart tebḍa ɣef sin n leṣfuf, ṣṣef ufella d ṣṣef n wadda.

Taddart tettḍebbir fell-as tejmaɛt i ibedden s ṭṭemman, wid i d-fernent txerrubin neɣ iderma. Dacu kan asbeddi n tejmaɛt s ṣṣifa-yi ad yekkes sser ɣef wejgu alemmas n tugdut, i yettakken leḥkem ɛlaḥsab n tuget n lɣaci, imi ad s-yefk ṭṭaqa d wafud i ṣṣef ur nesɛi aṭas n lɣaci, axaṭer yal adrum yettak-d kan yiwen n ṭṭamen, ur d-yecqi ma yesɛa aṭas neɣ drus n medden; dɣa i waken ad d-rren lmil deg tejmaɛt rnan-d imukan i yimɣaren d wid ur nezmir i uxeddim, ur d-yecqi ma n ṣṣef n wadda neɣ n win ufella, d wi iwumi nessawal lɛeqqal neɣ ukyisen. Ttɛassan ɣef lemqadra n leɛbar n leɛdad, s temɣer d tmusni-nsen rennun-d i ttedbar n tejmaɛt aɛeqqa n ttufiq d umeyyez i yessefken deg tegnatin n lḥerṣ d yimenɣiwen i d-yettaɣen taddart. Akka i tebna tejmaɛt yettḍebbiren ɣef taddart. Zik, ṣennig n tlufa tisertanin iɣef tettḍebbir, tella tferru ula d lexṣem gar yemdanen, dacu kan taggara-yi annect-a yettwakkes-as segmi d-tekcem Fransa. Tferren-d lamin, aqerruy n tejmaɛt, i yesɛan axeddim yettakken anezzih ar win n lemyur-nneɣ, mebla cekk d aɛeggal n tuget, dacu kan ur nefhim amek, deg yal tifranin, aɛeggal n tdersi, aɛeggal-nni wis-sin ixesren yettaṭṭaf amkan n lewkil n taddart; yelha-d d tlufa n uparti deg tejmaɛt, yettɛassa d acu ixeddem lamin, yerna yettaṭṭaf taxriṭ n lakumin, d netta i yessufuɣen tadrimt ɛlaḥsab n waken i tḍebber tejmaɛt. Dɣa swaswa, amzun akken deg ddewlat-nneɣ tiberlamaniyin, aqerruy n tama taxṣimt ad yuɣal mebla lemziya d aneɣlaf n tedrimt; tifin-a i d-ufan Yeqbayen tezmer ahat ad ɣ-d-tili d leslak, ad d-teḥbes deg uṣerref ur nemɛin n uparti yellan deg udabu.

Sumata, akka i d tamendawt taqbaylit. Mačči d lewhayem ad nwali deg yiwen n weɣref meḥsub d asufaj ad yaweḍ ad yesselḥu tasertit-is s wallaɣ d rrẓana, ad yefru s umeyyez aɣbel n wefraq n yimuren (tuget d tdersi), yerna iɛedda yakk imusnawen iqefzen deg tsertit, imi yefka amur aḥeqqi i tdersi deg ugraw n ddula?

Aya mačči qemceɣ allen-iw ɣef leɛyub d lixṣaṣ ideg tent-tuɣ tmendawt-a neɣ bɣiɣ ad tt-id-ssekneɣ d lmul i wakken ad tt-nɛaned. D ayen i d-yegmer umezruy n tmurt taqbaylit mebla ma ifaq seg leqrun iɛeddan, am leɛwayed d ṭṭbiɛa n Weqbayli, i d-yefrurin seg wakal s timmad-is, ala i netta iwumi tlaq, dɣa tajmaɛt-a tlul-d d taqbaylit ad temmet d taqbaylit. Am yimɣiyen-a ur nezmir ad d-yegmun ala deg leɛli d wemkan i s-ilaqen, akken daɣen tuddsa-ayi yessedhacen, ala abeḥri azeddgan n Ǧerǧer i tt-yessidiren. Aqbayli daɣen ur izemmer ara ad yesber fell-as; annar-is n tsertit ur yettɛedday ara akin i tlisa n yizerfan-is deg taddart, meɛna ur yessin ara daɣen ad yidir mebla yes-sen. Fransa teɣra-d seg twaɣit n 1871 ideg yuzzlen aṭas n yidammen, tettban-d amzun akken tefhem belli ur tzemmer ad tqabel agama mebla ma txelleṣ-itt ɣlayet, teẓra belli aḥettem n tsertit i yugi zzman, d aqdim n lqedma, d lbaṭṭel, ta d yiwet, imi ula d azref n umnekcam ur yezmir ara ad yessuref i waya, tis-snat, aya d ttawil ur nemɛin i wakken ad d-tesseɣliḍ rrehba ɣef yemdanen, ad ten-terreḍ tqadaren leḥkem-ik.

Ernest Fallot, Lareɛa Nait Iraten, 16 meɣres 1884.

Assuqel: Berkus Tiwal