Timagut n Ilibbiyen di tsekla tagrikit taqdimt

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Tazwart

Ma nger tamawt ar wamek ttwallin ddunit di tira-nnsen Yegrikkiyen n zik, amek ttwallin wayeḍ (win ur nellin ara d Agrikki), amek ttwallin abeṛṛani, amek ttwallin iman-nnsen…, ad nwalli, si tama-nneɣ, amek i llan di lawan-nni ttwallin Illibiyen. A nwalli amek i ten-ttɣilen, d wamek i ttmeslayen fell-asen.

Zwar ad twalliḍ wayeḍ, ad s-tsemmiḍ abeṛṛani, isefk-ak ad d-tesfergeḍ akal-ik. Ad as-tsemmiḍ ayla-k neɣ tamurt-ik. Ad s-tgeḍ tilisa. Ad s-tefkeḍ isem. Ssyen sakkin, tzemreḍ ad tefkeḍ isem ubeṛṛani i wayen akk ur d-ẓerbent ara tlisa-nni-inek.  Akken ad twalliḍ wayeḍ d abeṛṛani, akken ad tinigeḍ ɣer-s, isefk-ak ad t-tmuqleḍ di tmurt-nni-inek. Isefk-ak ad tebduḍ tikli ɣer-s di tmurt-nni-inek. Isefk-ak ad teṭṭfeḍ tamurt-nni-inek am wakken d nettat i d timiṭ n ddunit. Akka igan Yegrikkiyen. Gan tilisa i tmurt-nnsen, sseman-as ddunit tagrikkit. Fkan isem i yemezdaɣ-is, semman-asen Igrikkiyen. Ma d ayen akk yellan beṛṛa i tlisa-nni-nnsen, winna qarren-as ddunit tabeṛṛanit.

Igrikkiyen rran tikfilin i tmurt-nnsen. Gan-as tilisa, akken ad ẓren ansi d-uɣalen. Akken ad ferẓen d acu i d ayla-nnsen, anwa i d ayla-nnsen, amek izemren ad t-bḍun gar-asen… Ma yella d timura igemḍen, timura idergen i wallen-nnsen, tidak-nni i ɣer ur zmiren ad inigen, tidak-nni werğin ẓrin, tidak-nni ttwallin-tent di tmucuha. Di lawan-nni, ulac Tajugrafit, ulac imusnawen yettinigen akken ad gen lkarta n tmura. Degmi ayen akk ttmeslayen d wayen akk ttarun Yegrikkiyen ɣef tmura tibeṛṛaniyin, tekksen-t-id deg izran neɣ di tmucuha. Ar Yegrikkiyen, llan snat ddunitat : tella ddunit tagrikkit, tella ddunit n wiyaḍ, ddunit wer-tagrikkit, neɣ ma tram ddunit tabeṛṛanit.

Humirus, « adaskalus n Yegrikkiyen », xeṛţum akka i s-qarren Yegrikkiyen n zik. D netta i igan tilisa i tmurt n Tegrikt. Deg isefra-ines i ttelmaden iggurdan igrikkiyen ansi tebda d wansi d-tuɣal tmurt n Tegrikt. Humirus icennu ddunit akken tt-ttwallin Yegrikkiyen yellan di lawan-nni-ines. Ilyada tuls-ed ɣef tmurt n Tegrikt d tmurt n Asiya. Udissiya, netta, yuls-ed ɣef yinigen n Udissus, ɣef tmura i ɣef d-ikka zwar ad yaweḍ ɣer tegzirt-ines, Ittakki.

Tamusni, di lawan-nni n Humirus, tella deg isefra d wayen d-ttarwen wallaɣen n imedyazen. Ɣas akken Plaṭun ɣur-es tamuɣli nniḍen. Yura-t-id di libri-nni-ines i wumi yeqqar Ion, anda d-yenna d akken ur isefk ara ad s-neg aṭas n wazal i tmusni n tmedyazt. Yerna diɣen ur isefk ara akken tamedyazt ad tuɣal d nettat i d tussna n uselmed iggurdan iggrikkiyen. Ɣas akkenni, Igrikkiyen semman-as i Udissiya n Humirus Lunsiklupidia.  Ttafen deg-s akk tamusni i ran ad affen.  Deg  inigen n Udissus, ladɣa tussna n yinig ɣef waman. Tussna yellan di tmacahutt n Udissus tuɣal d idles atnusi (ethnos), d idles n yal Agrikki. Degmi yal Agrikki yeẓra ur ilaq ara ad yinig s uɣerabu ɣer umalu n Tegrikt, ammer ad teččen Xarubdi d Skulla.

Asmi sakkin d tnulfa tjugrafit, bdan ijugrafiyen ttinigen. Gan lkaṛtat n tmura, uran fell-asent  isem n yal tamurt. Uran-d ɣef tmura-yagi d yegduden i tent-izedɣen. Akkagi i gan imusnawen imezwura yebdan ttinigen, am Hikkatayus, Tales,  imusnawen d  ifusiken n Yunya. Wigi uran ɣef tmura ɣer unagen ayen wallan d wayen sen-d-nnan imezdaɣ n tmura-nni. Uran ayen wallant wallen-nnsen. Deg imiren, nezmer ad d-nnini tebda-d tmusni n tidett n ddunit-agi. Imusnawen-agi igrikkiyen ssawḍen tamusni armi wwḍen Iggrikkiyen  sulin tafluṭ-nnsen. Imusnawen-agi nudan anda d-zgant tmura nniḍen akken ad inigen ɣer-sent, akken ad ẓren amek ara inigen ɣer-sent s iɣuraben-nnsen. Ma nger tamawt i lkaṛtat n tmura xedmen, ad anaf ladɣa tṛasin iberdan n yilel yettawin ɣer tmura-nniḍen. Ula deg wakal, ad anaf tṛasin siwa isaffen, iɣeẓran d iberdan n waman. Imi ɣer Yegrikkiyen, ilel d netta i yezdin timura Tegrikt. Imi timura-nnsen, ɣas d tigzirin, ɣas akken msebɛadent, ḥesben-tent Yegrikkiyen d tamurt-nnsen, d tamurt n Tegrikt. Ma d timura ur d-neqqinen ara ɣer-sen, tidak-nni semman-asent timura tibeṛṛaniyin, neɣ timura n ibaṛbaṛen.

Abeṛṛani, abaṛbaṛ d Wugrikki

Astatu agenwan ?

Xenos, di ddunit tagrikkit, ɣur-es azal meqqur. Maca Agrikki ur yell’ ara d agzinufubbi*. S tidett win d-yusan ɣer tmurt-is yettban-as-d d abeṛṛani, ur t-yessin ara. Ɣas ma yella abeṛṛani-nni yettban-as-d mačči am netta, asennubget n Wegrikki d atafer (devoir/amawal). Yettagwad ammer ahat d adiyus i d-yerzan ɣer-s. Xénos, anda yerra di tmurt n Tegrikt, yesdarray-it Zeos Xénios (atan seddaw laɛnaya n Dzus.) Abeṛṛani semɣaren-t Yegrikkiyen. Agrikki ara yerẓen tassirit-agi, winna ssufuɣen-t Yegrikkiyen seg udrum-nnsen. gellzen-t, ţɣunzun-t ikiwisen. Rnu-yas diɣen, idiyusen, ur s-kemmun ara.

Maca tikwal d anmir akken ad tferzeḍ amgared yellan ɣer Yegrikkiyen ger Xénos d Barbaros, imi qaṛṛen Xénos ula i Wegrikki d-yusan di tčiṭa nniḍen. Ma d Barbaros, wagi qarren-t i win yellan mačči d Agrikki.

Yerna diɣenna awal-agi n Xénos yettaf sima*-ines, ala deg usennubget. Ma d Barbaros winna d amgal n Wegrikki. D isem-is i d awal-is. Degmi ur feṛzen ara d acu i yettmeslay, yesbeṛbuṛ kan, dɣa sawalen-as abaṛbaṛ.

Tameslayt d nekwa

Abaṛbaṛ, semman-as Yegrikkiyen abaṛbaṛ imi ur yettmeslay ara tagrikkit, tameslayt yesdukklen igduden igrikkiyen. Imi ɣer-sen, ɣer Yegrikkiyen, s kra n win yettmeslayen tagrikkit, winna ḥesben-t nnsen : d Agrikki. Ma d win ur nessin ara tagrikkit, winna mači nnsen, winna d abaṛbaṛ. Imi winna, ɣer-sen, ur yettmeslay ara. Akken kan yebda yettlemmim. Dagi i tella tilist gar Wegrikki d ubaṛbaṛ. D tameslayt. Agrikki yettxemmim d akken ur yezmir ara ad yemeslay yid-es, ur yezmir ara ad yemsefham yid-es. Tamuɣli-yagi n Yegrikkiyen teskan-aɣ-d akken yal yiwen yettwali tameslayt-is telha, tameslayt n wayeḍ txus. Yal yiwen seg-nneɣ yettxemmim tameslayt n wayeḍ ur tebbwiḍ ara d tameslayt. Yettwal-itt am’ akken d tameslayt n yeẓwan*, ur tesaweḍ ara akken ad msefhamen yes-s yemdanen. Akka i ttwallin yemdanen wid ur nessin ara tameslayt-nnsen. Awal s awal, a k-inin « Nekni ». Nekni nela taɣerma, nela tamusni, ma yella d wiyiḍ d uḍlisen, ulac d acu i ssnen. Ttbanen-asen-d i yat-Nekni d isuffağen. Yal agdud yettwali kan timiṭ-is. Yal agdud yettktili wiyaḍ ɣer wayen yessen d wayen yela. Yal amdan yettwali iman-is ḥaca netta i d amdan. S kra n win ur nga ara am netta, winna atan deg wesuki n talsa. Akken ula d Alibbi, ɣer Wegrikki, d abaṛbaṛ.

Abaṛbaṛ u ugemmaḍ

Atah ihi wamek i ttwallin yemdanen taddukli. Qarren teddukkel tɣawsa, ticki d-tettban ddukklen isegman-ines, neɣ ma tram ayen akk swayes tulli tɣawsa-nni. Akken ula d atnus (ethnos), yettban-d d yiwen, ticki t-tesdukkel tmeslayt, yesdukkel-it yedles. Atnus-agi a t-tferzeḍ, imi tettban ccetla-ines, tettban tmeslayt-ines. Abaṛbaṛ ur yelli ara d abaṛbaṛ armi yemgarad d Wegrikki. Agrikki yela tameslayt. Abaṛbaṛ xaṭi. Agrikki iddukkel yedles-ines, tesdukkel-it tmedyazt n Humiṛus. Sdukklent wuraren n Hillada, anda ttemlilen warraw n Hilini, anda turaren, anda ttemyenfalen, anda ţgen tidukliwin akken ad gen lgirra.

Barbaros, awal-agi gan-t Yegrikkiyen i Yfeṛsiyen. Ɣas akken Ifeṛsiyen d aɣref yeddukklen, d acu d agemḍi n wetnus Agrikki, warraw n Hilini. Yerna nezmer a d-nini d Ifersiyen i yedeggren Igrikkiyen akken ad gen tilisa i tmurt-nnsen. Deg wakken ten-id-nebcen acḥal n tikkal, dɣa Igrikkiyen gan tiseɣlit i tmurt-nnsen. Deg imiren ibdan beṭṭun ddunit. D acu i d Agrikki, d acu i d wer-Agrikki; anwa i d Agrikki, anwa i d wer-Agrikki. Ddukklen, gan tiddukla, uɣalen d yiwen weɣref. Uɣalen d yiwen weɣref mgal aɣref afeṛsi, agemḍi-nnsen. Ɣas akkenni tičiṭa n tmurt n Tegrikt ur temsefhament ara, asmi d-ibges ɣer-sen Xsayarsa, ugellid amuqran n Ifeṛsiyen, ddukklent-as tčiṭa-yagi am yiwet. Di tdukli-nni-nnsent, illul-ed wetnus Agrikki. Ssyen sakkin, bḍan ddunit : llan si tama Yegrikkiyen, si tama nniḍen llan Ifeṛsiyen, neɣ Ibaṛbaṛ. Deg imiren, Igrikkiyen sawalen akk i yegduden nniḍen Ibaṛbaṛ, sawalen-asen akken ula i Ilibbiyen.

Akka, abaṛbaṛ, ɣer wegrikki, d inimik neɣ d aɛdaw. Abaṛbaṛ, mačči kan d agemḍi n Wegrikki. Abaṛbaṛ yettnadi ad yenkeṛ akk ayen yellan d Agrikki. Dɣa deg imiren awal-agi n ubaṛbaṛ qnen-t Yegrikkiyen i Ifeṛsiyen d yegduden akk i sen-d-yezzin, gar-asen Ikaṛyan, Imedwa…artg.

Llan yegduden yettidiren ar tama n Yegrikkiyen, yerna igduden-agi ulac akk d acu i ten-yezdin d Ifeṛsiyen, am ugdud Askutay, yettidirin di tama n ugaffa n tmurt n Tegrikt. Wigi ɣas akkenni mačči d Ifeṛsiyen, ttwallin-ten Yegrikkiyen seddaw talsa. Ttwalin-ten am yeẓwan n teẓgi n tmucuha. Akken i ttwallin Yegrikkiyen ula d Ilibbiyen di tmucuha-nnsen. Akken ttwalin akk igduden-nniḍen. Ulac akk agdud yeččuren tiṭ i Yegrikkiyen.

Abaṛbaṛ, ur yettwaṭṭaf ara kan akka. Maca ɣas akkenni, ɣer Yegrikkiyen, akken kan ara t-wallin, ɛeqlen-t. Ɛeqlen-t, imi ɣer-sen, abaṛbaṛ, ur ig’ ara am nutni. Ayen akk i yexeddem yezleg. Degmi t-ttwallin ixullef-iten, ixullef imdanen. Imi Igrikkiyen ttwallin ḥaca nutni i d imdanen. Deg wakken ur tessinen ara, dɣa bran i yilesawen-nnsen, ttawin fell-as timucuha. Ttwallin-t akken ran a t-wallin, mačči akken yella.

Timagut n wayeḍ

Zik-nni, win iran ad yissin wayeḍ, isefk-as ad isel i tligdin (legenda) ss-d-sawalen widak-ines. Igrikkiyen ttmeslayen aṭas ɣef wiyaḍ deg tligdin-nnsen. Am akken dɣa s tidett tiligdin-agi qarrent-d ayen yellan ɣef wiyaḍ. Yerna am akken teẓram, deg wegni n wesru,  diskur n tligenṭ yezwar-d win n tesṭurit ; ma yella deg wegni n tfusi, diskur n tligenṭ ittmeslay-d ɣef imukan werğin yeẓri, ɣef imukan i yettara maḍi sagwaden, am Xaribdu d Skulla. Taligenṭ tneğer allaɣ n wemdan. D nettat i s-yettmalen amek iga wayeḍ. Tikwal, taligenṭ tessexdam tmagut akken ad d-temeslay ɣef yegduden nniḍen, ɣas akkenni mačči aṭas n yemsefliden i ifehmen timagutin-nni, maca tiligdin, iswi-nnsent yiwen. Ad nwalli akk annect-agi akkagi ciṭuḥ ɣer zdat. A nwalli d akken s tidett d timagutin-agi i inejren allaɣ n Yigrikkiyen. Dayen i yufan deg-sent i d-ttalsen neɣ i d-ttarun ɣef yegduden nniḍen.

Maca, zwar ad d-nawi ameslay ɣef annect-agi, isefk-aɣ ad d-nini d acu i d taligenṭ, d acu n wemkan i teṭṭef ger Yegrikkiyen ? S tidett, ur nezmir ad d-nemeslay aṭas ɣef temsalt-agi n tligenṭ, imi ugar n imusnawen i d-yuran yakan fell-as, maca nezmer ad d-nini akken d akken d taligenṭ i ineğren allaɣ agrikki di tallit-nni. Yerna ula d awal-nni n Muthos ur d-iban ara d akken imgarad ɣef Logos almi d lqern wis-IV. Zwar, sin wawalen-agi, Muthos d Logos, ur ttwafṛazen ara akken iwata.

Taligenṭ, Muthos, temxallaf ɣef tmacahutt. Taligenṭ ttɣilen-as yemdanen d ayen yellan. Taligenṭ, tuɣal maḍi yes-s i ttmeyizzen yegduden. Taligenṭ teqqen ɣer nekwa n yal agdud, yal aɣref, yal tawacult, yal tačiṭa. Yal agdud, yal aɣref, yal tawacult, yal tačiṭa ɣur-sen taligenṭ i sen-d-ismektayen amek i d-nulfan, anisi d-frurin, ansi d-kkan.  Taligenṭ d nettat i yettreṣin tilisa gar Yegrikkiyen, gar tčiṭa tigrikkiyen, gar Yegrikkiyen d yegduden ibeṛṛaniyen. Tiligdin n Yegrikken ttmeslayent-d aṭas ɣef yegduden nniḍen : am tligenṭ n Tmaẓunin. Taligenṭ-agi tbeggen-aɣ-id d akken Igrikkiyen ttwallin igduden nniḍen akken ran ad ten-wallin, imi Timaẓunin, ɣer Yegrikkiyen, d atnus n tlawin tigrariyin, i ineqqen irgazen-nnsent d warrac-nnsent. Igrikkiyen ttwallin Timaẓunin-agi mačči am yemdanen nniḍen. Suffɣen-tent di talsa.

Taligenṭ neɣ diskur aligdan, zwar kulci, yella d awal, d awal d-nnan, ɣur-es anamek (lmeɛna) di tmagutin i t-iwulmen kan. Imi yal taligenṭ, yal tama n Tegrikt amek i tt-ttawi, amek i tt-tesawal. Yal taligenṭ, yal aɣref (groupe) deg wetnus n Tegrikt amek i tt-yettawi. Rnu yal aɣref yeqqar-as d taligenṭ-inu i d-yezwaren, d taligenṭ-inu i s n tidett. Maca zwar kulec, taligenṭ d taɣawsa tessexdam tmeslayt n tsekla. M ara d-yawi wetnus taligenṭ, ur tt-id-yettawi yara akken tella, yettbeddil-as ma issefk ad as-ibeddel, yettbeddil-as ittara-tt akken twulem, amek i twulem d wamek teffeɣ fell-as. Yal taligenṭ s tugnitt-ines. Anect-agi yesmektay-aɣ-id innan n isuffiyen d imedyazen. Yal asuffi, yal amyaru, yal amedyaz irennu sɣur-es i tlegdin d-yufa ɣer wetnus-ines. Degmi i yesefk ɣef win yeqqaren tiligdin, ad yissin tiligdin-agi amek ten-id-ttawin medden zik-nni, zwar ad sen-ɛiwden tira imyura-yagi d imedyazen-agi.

Taligenṭ d ayen d-snulfan lɣaci, d ayen d-qarren imezwura. Taligenṭ d lsas n yal tasekla. Agad yettarun tiligdin, ttarun ayen d-ufan yakkan ɣer imezwura-nnsen. Ulac d acu i d-snulfan si tama-nnsen yemyura-yagi. Ma yella amdyaz neɣ amyaru yuls-ed akken iwata taligenṭ, winna ad tafeḍ fehment lɣaci, yerna hemmlen-t. Imi di tegnitt am tagi, amedyaz-nni neɣ amyaru-nni, yerra-yasen i lɣaci ayen d-ufan yakkan ɣer imezwura-nnsen. Yella deg idles-nnsen. Taligenṭ d ayen illan deg idles n lɣaci-nni, sdaxel-nnsen, d ayen ran ad yilli. Degmi ifeṛzen iman-nnsen deg tlegdin sen-d-talsen imedyazen-nnsen d yemyura-nnsen. Ttɣilen-as ddunit-nni yella di tlegdin-nni d tinna i yellan di beṛṛa. D anect-agi meṛṛa i yettuɣalen d idles n yegduden. Tasekla tesnulfuy-d ddunit, tettcebbiḥ-itt s tmuga, s tmiṭafurin, tettaru-tent akken iwata. Rnu-yas yal amyaru ɣur-es abrid n tira-ines, weḥd-es. Yal tasekla tlul-ed deg wayen d-qarren lɣaci. Maca tasekla tettara ayen d-qarren lɣaci d tamagut neɣ d asefru. Tettara-t yecbeḥ. Tikwal tettara-t axiṛ n wakken t-id-nnan lɣaci. Degmi i nezmer ad nwali di tsekla timagut yela yal amyaru ɣef wayeḍ, ɣef yemdenan nniḍen, ɣef yegduden nniḍen. Yerna nezmer diɣen ad nefhem, m ara nɣer tasekla n yemyura-yagi, amek lɣaci-nnsen (widak-nni i wumi ttarun) ttwalin Wayeḍ d yegduden nniḍen.

Timagut am lemri. Maca d acu n wazal tela tmagut m ara d-terr udem mačči kan n yiwen wemdan, tikwal tettra ad aɣ-d-tesken udem n yegduden kan akken ? Amek tram diɣen akken udem n wayeḍ ad ɣ-d-yesefhem amek iga wudem-nneɣ ? M ara nesteqsi d acu i ɣ-d-teqqar tmagut, m ara nẓer astut-ines (Astut/ statut), dinna nesteqsay s tidett amek iga dɣa wudem-nni ɣ-d-teskanay.

Timagut ur tezmir ad tilli weḥd-es, ad d-temeslay ɣef yiman-is. Isefk ad tili taɣawsa ara tt-id-yeseknen. Nettwali udem-nneɣ di lemri akken d-ittuɣal deg wudem-is alegweɣan, udem-nni n lemri, igan i wannect-agi. Ma yelha lemri, yettexdem akken ilaq, iban kan akka ad-ɣ-d-yerr timagut-nneɣ akken tella, ad tt-nwalli akken ɣ-d-ttwalin wiyaḍ. Timagut nettwalli di lemri m ara nbed zdat-es d timagut-nneɣ, mačči d tin n lğar-nneɣ, mačči d tin n wayeḍ. Nɛeqqel iman-nneɣ. Degmi i wen d-nniɣ llina d akken timagut tuhwağ taɣawsa i ilaqen ad ɣ-tt-id-tesken. Timagut issefk ad tt-ttwaɛqal akken kan ara tt-nwalli. Issefk ad tt-neɛqel, ad nẓer d acu-tt, n wi-tt-ilan. Timagut-agi ɣur-es anamek (lmeɛna) ma yella neẓra d acu i ɣ-d-teskanay, ma yella diɣen yessen-itt wayeḍ, yettwali-tt akken tt-nettwali. Timagut teskanay-aɣ-d ayen nessen, ayen ssnen wiyaḍ, d wayen ɣef msefhamen yemdanen. Timagut, ɣur-es yiwen unamek, anida tebɣu tilli. Timagut tettmeslay i tmuɣli, tga akken ad tt-twali tiṭ, akken ad tt-nefreẓ, akken ad nẓer d acu-tt, d acu i ɣ-d-teqqar.

Timagut msefhamen fell-as yemdanen, almi tuɣal tira d awal n tedmust (Société/de démos, grec), tuɣal tettmeslay akken yettmeslay yiles-nneɣ. Tameslayt-agi n tedmust tella zwar ad tt-naru, am imeslayen, llan zwar ad ten-id-nini : imi m ara nessusem, ur nessusum ara axaṭer ur nessin ara a nemeslay. Ɣas nessusem, nessen a nemeslay, imi aẓeṭṭa n tmeslayt yella deg uqerray-nneɣ, yeffer seddaw yiles-nneɣ, ires ɣef udem ufus. Tameslayt-agi n tedmust d nettat i ineğṛen allaɣ-nneɣ, tezga tella yid-nneɣ. D nettat i yeneğṛen taluggust-nneɣ, axayel-nneɣ, tikta-nneɣ, d wayen akk nxeddem.

Timagut, kifkif, am tmeslayt-agi n tedmust, ula d nettat tneğer allaɣen-nneɣ d tiktiwin-nneɣ. Ur tezmir ara ad tili anamek (lmeɛna) ḥaca di tegnitt-is, ɣas akken neẓra d akken timagut-nni tezmer ad turar s tegnitt-nni-ines.  Nezmer ad d-nini : « Yal timagut s tegnitt-ines. » Degmi timagut ur tezmir ad ɣ-d-terr swaswa akken yella wayen ɣ-d-teskanay, imi d tamerwalt (treggwel). Ɣur-es tagnitt i tt-ifhmen, swayes nezmer diɣen ad tt-id-nesefhem. Degmi ur ɣ-ilaq ara ad neṛwu s tmagut n tsekla n Ilibbiyen. Isefk-aɣ ad nɛereḍ ad nefreẓ d acu ɣ-d-teqqar tmagut-agi, amek armi timagut-agi ɣur-es anamek (lmeɛna) ɣer widak tt-yettwalin, ɣer widak i wumi tt-nettak akken ad tt-wallin.

Tamuɣli n weɣref deg utestu

Yuɛar akken ad nefṛez ayen yellan, imi deg waṭas n tegnatin, ayen nettwali illuɣ. Yeffer ger tmagutin n tsekla. Aṭas n wayen nettaf di tsekla, ur t-nfeṛṛez ara imi ɣ-ireggel wanamek-ines. Imi tikwal ayen yellan iban ɣer wid yeqarren tasekla, ɣer-nneɣ nekkni, ur yefri ara. Nettxemmim, nettnadi akken ad nefṛez d acu i ran a t-id-inin yemyura-nni yuran di lawan-nni-nnsen, ɣef acu i ran ad d-meslayen. Ayen yellan zik-nni  d tidett ɣer Yegrikkiyen, ayen-nni akk i inejṛen allaɣen-nnsen lawan-nni, ur iwulem ara assagi, imi ayen ttwallin lawan-nni-nnsen, ayen ssnen ɣef ddunit-agi, mačči akken i t-ttwalin yemdanen assagi. Tbeddel tmusni. Assagi nettwali ddunit akken tt-tra tmusni n lawan-agi neɣ ma tram tmusni tamaynut, akken tt-tettwali tluggust tamaynut. Ɣef annect-agi meṛṛa ara d-nmagger uguren yal tikkelt m ara nɛereḍ ad nefṛez timagut n Ilibbiyen di tsekla tagrikkit.

Yella diɣen wugur nniḍen, imi imyura n lawan-nni, nettɣil-iten d nutni i ɣ-d-yeskanayen idles n tmura-nnsen. Degmi tikwal ur nfeṛez ara d acu i d-ttarun yemyura-yagi, neɣ amek yettaru yal yiwen seg-sen. Neɣ ma tram, astil (style) n yal amyaru n lawan-nni neɣ tindi (tindi/origine) n tesmagut-ines (imagination) d ttin n lɣaci ukud yettidir. Amek i nezmer  a nẓer d acu i s-yekkes neɣ d acu i s-yerna i tmagut ssnen akk at tallit-nni? Amek i izmer umyaru ad imsel allaɣ n widak-ines, widak-nni i wumi yettaru ?

Rnu, di tsekla, yella wayen i wumi neqqar ageniw (génie) n yal amyaru. Maca yella ugeniw n yal atnus. Rnu diɣen, yella umeslay gar yemyura-yagi ttmeslayen-t gar-asen. Ayen i wumi isemma Gérard Genette « Gar-itestuyen » (texte). Amek ara tferzeḍ tillin (existence) n utestu deg wayeḍ nniḍen, ticki ixab utestu amezwaru. Yerna isefk-aɣ diɣen ad nẓer ma yella itestuyen-agi ɣur-sen azal muqren, ma yella ttwarun neɣ ttmeslayen i waṭas n yemdanen neɣ i kra kan : akka am widak yeṛwan d widak yeɣran.

Isefk-aɣ a nẓer ma yella itestuyen-agi ttmeslayen-d s yisem n utnus. Axaṭer ticki tikti teqqen ɣer tmagut, ilaq timagutin-nni ad tt-nessiɣ (nzreɛ) akken iwata. Nezmer ad d-nini d akken anda tewweḍ tmagut, i yewweḍ uzal-is. Timagut-yagi ahaqel ɣur-es tillin lawan-nni kan i deg tt-nwala, neɣ ma tram teqqen kan ɣer tallit-nni akken i deg tt-nwala ? Timagut tettuɣal d EIDOS, timagut i yellan kan di tegwenitt-nni-ines, nettwali-tt akken tella imiren, neɣ tettɣimi kan d EIDOLUN PHANTASMA n wemyaru i yellan kan tallit-nni i deg neqqar ayen d-yura.

Deg wannect-agi akk i ɣ-ilaq ad nefṛez timagut n Ulibbi antiki : Ardmani ma yella yiwen usertu n Ulibbi kan neɣ ma llan aṭas ? Ilaq-aɣ a nẓer diɣen ma yella Igrikkiyen ttwalin akk s yiwet n tmuɣli Ilibbiyen, anda ma llan, di yal tamurt, di yal tallit n tudert-nnsen ?

Zwar ad nekcem akk di tlufa-yagi, ilaq-aɣ ad d-naf anwa i d METHODOS neɣ abrid ara neḍfer akken ad nefṛez akk anect-agi, akken ad nefṛez ladɣa anda-tt tilist i nezmer a neg i yisem-agi n Ulibbi d Ilibbiyen ?

Ansi d-yekka yisem n Ilibbiyen ?

Isefk-aɣ tura ad d-nesmekti, di libri-yagi, anisi d-yekka yisem-agi n Ilibbiyen. Atah d acu i d-yura Stéphane Gsell di libri-ines i wumi yeqqar Hérodote : « Isem agrikki Libué yekka-d di Libus d-yefrurin deg isem agefti « Libou« . Libou, d wagi i d isem fkan di lawan-nni Igiftisen i imezdaɣ yettidiren ger wagulf n Sirtis d Ugeftus di leqrun XIII-XII. Ɣer Igiftisen i wwin Yegrikkiyen isem-agi. Dɣa akkagi isawalen Ygrikkiyen imezwura i imezdaɣ d-ufan di tamaṭ-agi n Tefrikt, asmi d-usan ar Kiṛinayik ».

Tazwara, isem-agi n  Libus fkan-t kan Yegrikkiyen i tamaṭ-agi n Tefrikt, d-yezgan ɣef yilel agrakal, ger tmurt n Igiftus d wagulf n Sirtis. Uɣalen tagara-yagi ḍelqen isem-agi akk i Tefrikt ugafa akken ma tella. Fkan-as-t akken ad feṛzen tamaṭ-agi n ddunit d Urupa d Asiya. Maca ɣas akkenni llan di lawan-nni imyura ur nfṛiqq ara ger Libbiya d Asiya. Ttɣilen-as d yiwet n tmurt.

Yenna-d Stephane Gsell d akken Hiruddutus, yura-d di libri-ines wis-IV:  zik-nni isem n Libbiya musnaw ugar isem n Ilibbiyen.  Imi Libbiya d lber, yerna llan deg-s aṭas n itnusen, gar-asen at-tmurt d ibeṛṛaniyen. Gar at-tmurt-nni llan Ilibbiyen d Ityupiyen; ma gar ibeṛṛaniyen-nni, llan Igrikkiyen d Ikaṛtajiyen. Ɣer Hiruddutus, at Libus d imezdaɣ yettidiren ger tmurt n Igiftus d lkaf n Sulus. Ma d at Aithiopes, wigi d itnusen iberkanen yettidiren di tama n wadda n lber n Libbiya. Am akken twallam ihi, Igiftisen, ɣer Yegrikkiyen, mačči d Ilibbiyen.

Ɣer François Chamoux, isem « Alibbi » ɣur-s tlata inumak : tikwal qarren-t i imezdaɣ n Tefrikt ugafa s umata, akken ad ten-feṛzen d Ityupiyen; tikwal qqaren-t i imezdaɣ n Kiṛini kan; tikwal diɣen qarren-t kan i Yegrikkiyen yettidiren di Kiṛinayik, warraw n Hilini, i d-yusan di Tegrikt. Tagara, qarren-t Iṛumaniyen ula i Ikartajinen. Degmi agad yettarun ttemxalafen ɣef yisem-agi « Alibbi ». Yal yiwen seg-sen amek i t-yettwali. Ɣef ayagi i yewɛeṛ tikwal a nefṛez anwa i d Alibbi, anwa i mačči d Alibbi.

Dɣa d annect-agi ara neɛreḍ ad wen-nsefhem di libri-yagi. A nwali d acu i d-urran wagad d-yemeslayen ɣef Ilibbiyen, ssyen sakkin, a nwalli yal yiwen d acu i d-yenna, amek yettwali Ilibbiyen.

A nwali diɣen lxiḍ yellan di lawan-nni ger Yegrikkiyen d imezdaɣ n Tefrikt Ugafa, d imezdaɣ akk iqqnen ɣer tama-yagi n ddunit.

Tella tɣawsa nniḍen i ɣef ilaq diɣen ad d-nemeslay fell-as. Tagi d amudus (du latin modus/mode) n umasi (Contact/amawal) yellan gar Yegrikkiyen d Ilibbiyen, agad yettawin ttaran gar-asen, d acu i ttmeslayen, imi wigi, ula d nutni, akken qarren : « kra yella kra yerna ». Llan tlata isurta gar wigi yettawin ttaran gar sin itnusen-agi.

1) Llan Yegrikkiyen yettxalaḍen arraw n tmurt-nni, neɣ kra deg-sen, widak-nni i wumi qarren Ikiṛaniyen (Wigi d arraw n tmurt izedɣen di Kiṛinayik).

2) Igiftisen, wagad-nni dɣa i d-yemlan isem n Libou i Yegrikkiyen, d nutni diɣen i sen-yettmeslayen ɣef Ilibbiyen, qarren-asen amek i ten-ttwallin.

3) Ifeṛsiyen, ula d nutni usan-d ar Libbiya, maca ur mulen ara. Nutni diɣen aṭas i d-nnan ɣef tmurt n Libbiya d tudert n Ilibbiyen.

4) Ikaṛtajiyen, nutni ttidiren d warraw n tmurt. Aṭas i wwin Yegrikkiyen ɣer-sen ɣef ayen yerzan tameddurt n Ilibbiyen.

5) Iṛumaniyen, wigini ur ɣ-yegzi ara aṭas wayen txemmimen ɣef Ilibbiyen, imi nutni, usan-d kan ṭṭfen tamurt n Tefrikt Ufella. Nutni ur d-usin ara akken ad isinnen imezdaɣ-ines, usan-d kan akken ad tt-ṭṭfen.

Ayen akk d-qarren itnusen-agi ɣef Ilibbiyen, isefk-aɣ ad t-id-nesmekti. Ad t-id-nesmekti, akken ad nefhem timagut ssulin Yegrikkiyen ɣef Ilibbiyen. Imi Igrikkiyen d ayen akk slan ɣef utnus-agi i d-ttalsen di tira-nnsen. Rnu tagara, d ayen slan i si yuɣalen umnen, i yuɣalen d timagut n utnus alibbi. Maca gar imagaren-agi meṛṛa, amagar akk i ssnen Yegrikkiyen di Libbiya d Ikiṛaniyen. Imi d nutni i yettidiren d Ilibbiyen n tmurt. Rnu diɣen, akken t-id-yura Pindarus, ɣef Yegrikkiyen yeṭṭfen tamurt n Kiṛinayik, ula d nutni, ttawin-d awal di tmucuha-nnsen ɣef Ilibbiyen. Ula d nutni ttikkin di lebni n tmagut lan Ilibbiyen ɣer Yegrikken di tallit-nni. Kiṛinayik d amkan anda mlalen sin itnusen-agi : Igrikkiyen d Ilibbiyen. Dinna i ttidiren akken, dinna izdin, dinna i ttemyekcamen, dinna akk imyusanen akken iwata. Gar Yegrikkiyen akk d Ilibbiyen yettidiren di Kiṛinayik,  ulac wis tlata.

Annect-agi akk yewwi-yaɣ-d ar westeqsi-yagi : ayen akk nessen ɣef Ilibbiyen, amenḍar d ayen d-iqqar wis tlata ? D ayen ttmeslayen wagad yettidiren yid-sen di tallit-nni ? D ayen ttxayalen imaruyen igrikkiyen ? Akka, timagut n Ulibbi tewweḍ almi tuɣal d asurti n tira (Annect-agi ad t-id-nmager ar zdat m ara nɛreḍ ad nefhem d acu i yurran imyura ihiliniten ɣef Ilibbiyen) – Dagi, nezmer ad d-nini d akken agad yeqqaren, ttamnen, ladɣa imyura yessnen ad arun. Ttamnen-ten ɣas ma yella ayen d-nnan akk ɣef Ilibbiyen ur yell’ara. Rnu-yas diɣen tallit i deg ttarun yemyura-yagi, imi akken qarren s teqbaylit : « Yal tallit s tallit-is ».

Akuṛpus

Akuṛpus, ilaq-as uccima (Schéma). Accima-yagi, netta, ilaq-as ad yeḍfer afsir (exposé/amawal), ulama ur s-d-tewwi yara akken ad t-ilḥeq neɣ a s-d-yezg. Ammer d lebɣi, tettunefk-aɣ tegnitt akken ad awen-d-nefk ɣef tikkelt akk awalen d-yura yal amyaru, ɣas ulama awalen-nni akk ines ur d-ttmeslayen ara ɣef yiwet n tɣawsa. Degmi i nra ad neğğ tilelli i win ara yeɣren libri-yagi, d netta i wumi ilaq ad d-yaf lxiḍ ger wawalen-agi. Nekni, si tama-nneɣ, urdu (du latin ordo/ordre) ara nefren akken ad awen-d-nefk itistiyen ad yilli d urdu n tkṛunulugit, neɣ ma tram d urdu n wesru (temps/mot kabyle ancien), mačči d urdu n usefhem neɣ n tanuyt, am wakken nga di testudi-yagi-nneɣ (Tastudi : du latin studium). Di tallit n Humiṛus ar tin n Plutaṛkus tefuṛsi-yaɣ akken ad neg akkagi. Maca, ɣas akkenni, ad neɛreḍ ad awen-d-nefk yal   atestu di tegnitt-ines (Di tegnitt i deg yettwaru).

Ma yella d itestiyen iɣezfanen, am utestu n Hiruddutus  d  Apullunus n Rudis d wiyaḍ, ur ten-id-nettawi ara i meṛṛa di libri-yagi, maca ad awen-d-nefk libriwat i deg tzemren ad ten-tafem d libriwat nniḍen d-yettmeslayen fell-asen. Di libri-yagi-nneɣ nekni, ad awen-d-nefk kan kra n yekafuten (caput, tête, chapitre) n itestiyen n yemurya-yagi. Ikafuten i wulmen, widak yerzan ayen i ɣef nettnadi.

Accima

Akken ad nmeyyez accima n ukuṛpus, ɣur-nneɣ sin iberdan. Si tama, nezmer ad nestudi (étudier) tamuɣli lan Yegrikkiyen ɣef Ilibbiyen, neɣ ad d-nbeggen akk udmawen n tmagut n Ilibbiyen; si tama-nniḍen, nezmer ad anani akuṛpus s webrid n tesṭurya, i deg ara d-nesmekti tinerni n tmagut n Ilibbiyen di yal tallit n tesṭurya-ines. Nekni nefren abrid-agi, neɣ udus-agi wis-sin, wagi n tesṭurya.

Imi iberdan-agi i sin, ɣur-sen tawwurt, ɣur-sen uguren. Amezwaru yettak-d tamuɣli s umata ɣef tima (du grec Théma/sujet), maca ahaqel ma mazal tela anamek (sima) tsemlilt n mraw n leqrun n tsekla, imi Igrikkiyen n tallit n Humiṛus ur ttwalin ddunit-agi akken tt-ttwalin Yegrikken n tallit n Plutaṛkus. Tasemlilt neɣ tasantast (Synthèse/Amawal) di tegnitt am tagi tewɛeṛ akken ad a s-naf ixef-is, imi tezmer, di yal tagnitt,  ad teqlaɛ ɣef iẓuran tasekla-yagi deg wakal n tallit-ines, winna akkenni i deg d-tellul.

Atah acimi ihi i nefren abrid wis-sin, abrid n tesṭurya. Imi abrid-agi yeṭṭafar asru, yeskanay-d di yal tallit amek tella deg-s tmagut n wayeḍ; amek tettnerni di tallit ɣer tayeḍ. Amek yettbeddil unamek n tmagut s umata, i deg tella tinna n Ilibbiyen.  Maca ugur n webrid-agi n tesṭurya, ẓẓay ciṭuḥ, imi yeqwa deg-s wallus (uɛiwed), imi tikwal, tinerni-yagi n tmagut ur yettwafreẓ ara akken iwata. Maca timagut n Ilibbiyen a d-tettban am akken yuzzel fell-as ukeryun acḥal n tikkal.

Akka, a nwalli ɣer tmagut n Ulibbi tlata yesgiwen neɣ udmawen. Isgiwen-yagi (Asegiw/Dimension/Amawal) ṭṭafaren tinerni n umudus (Mode) n tudert n Yegrikkiyen, imawlan n tfiluẓufit, ɣef akken d-qarren. Asgiw amezwaru d tallit n tligenṭ: anda timagut n wayeḍ-Alibbi nettaf-itt ḥaca deg tligenṭ d tmucuha, anda tugar tfantasma, anda yexḍel tligenṭ d tluggust.

Asgiw wis-sin, wagi d tallit n tluggust, anda yebda Wegrikki yeggar tamawt ɣer tmeddurt n wayeḍ, ɣer tmeddurt n wer-Agrikki. Dɣa ssyenna i d-tebda tmuɣli taluggant. Imiren i d-tellul tetnugrafit, neɣ tussna ɣef yegduden. Dinna ibdan yemyura-nnsen ttnadin ad issinen amek ttidiren yetnusen nniḍen, amek ttxemmimen, amek i ttwalin ddunit…  Maca anect-agi yuhwağ tamawt neɣ isalen (Dagi nezmer ad d-nmagger ugur anect-ilat, imi yuɛar akken ad nwali anisi d-yugem wemyaru isalen-ines). Tagrikt, deg wakken tella d tigzirt, twehha i « wbeḥri n lxilaf. » Maca, ɣas akkenni, mazal ttwalin Alibbi d abaṛbaṛ, imi ur yessaweḍ ad yelḥeq atnus agrikki di tɣerma. Ttwalin-t seddaw-nnsen. Ttwalin-t, di tallit-agi, d atnus n Tetnulugit, akken s-yeqqar Levi-Strauss.

Ma d asgiw aneggaru, wagi d tallit muqqren, imi ɣer yetnusen-agi « ibaṛbaṛen » bdant ttifrirent-ed seg-sen tfiggurin timiqranin, tfiggurin tesṭuriyen, mačči ttidak-nni n zik-nni, tidak-nni tetnugrafit. Alibbi, neɣ Afrikki, yuɣal iga amkan-is di tesṭurya d tikli n tesṭurya. Tasṭurya yeqnen ɣer tesmagut n Yegrikkiyen.

Maca, ɣas yella akk wanect-agi, ur tettafeḍ ara isgiwen-agi ttwafeṛzen. Tzemreḍ ad ten-tafeḍ i tlata ɣef tikkelt deg tira n yiwen wemyaru, ɣas ad yili wemyaru-yagi ittaru di lawan n tfigguriyin-agi tesṭuriyin. Degmi i nra ad nmeyyez i tlata yesgiwen-agi, yerna ad d-neɛreḍ ad d-nesbin deg-sen turart n wudmawen ttakken Yegrikkiyen, deg tesmagut-nnsen, i Ilibbiyen.

Xuḍi, akken ad d-nesefṛez akken iwata, akken a neɛqel tinerni tasṭuryit di tsmagut n Yegrikkiyen d wamek ttwalin ibaṛbaṛen s umata, gar-asen Ilibbiyen. A naf ihi llant rebɛa tilla n wamek ttwalin Yegrikkiyen Ilibbiyen akk d itnusen ibaṛbaṛen.

1°) Tallit taṛkayit, tagi d tallit n telgenṭ, anda Igrikkiyen ur ttxalaḍen ara itnusen nniḍen.

2°) Tallit taklasikkit (Tatnugrafit), anda bdan teffɣen Yegrikkiyen, bdan ttxalaḍen leğnas nniḍen, ladɣa di lkumiṛs.

3°) Tallit tahilinistit, di tallit-agi i deg ibeddel umagar lan Yegrikkiyen d yetnusen nniḍen. Imi degmi yewweḍ Aliksandrus Umiggas ɣer yal tamurt, bdan Yegrikkiyen ttemlilen itnusen nniḍen, bdan ttissinen-ten, bdan maḍi ttwalin-ten akkin nniḍen. Dɣa imiren i d-illul wawal-nni « Kusmupulitis ». Maca, ɣas akkenni abeṛṛani, ɣer Yegrikkiyen, ur ibeddel ara aṭas. Di tira taliksandrit, imyura n Tegrikt, ur ttun ara tamuɣli n tlegdin-nnsen.

4°) Tallit taṛumanit, tagi tbeddel akk deg-s tmuɣli yellan ɣef ddunit. Ssyen akkin d nutni i yettawin lxiḍ ger Ilibbiyen d Yegrikkiyen, yernu d awal-nnsen i yettɛeddayen. D nutni i yeṭṭfen ddunit-agi. Iṛumaniyen ɣur-sen tamuɣli ula ɣef Yegrikkiyen. Di lgirrat-nni n tifiniqqiyin (puniques), tɛawed akk tmagut n Ilibbiyen.

Ameziane Kezzar / Mohand Lounaci

(Amagrad-a yeffeɣ tikkelt tamezwarut di usmel: marenostrumarcadia)